Publications

 

 

Submitted by Md. Ziaur Rahman

 

Table of Contents
Sections                                                   Contents Page

No

1.0 Overview 1
1.1 Context 1
2.0 Instructional practice 2
3.0 The theoretical ideas 3
3.1 Critical discussion of the theoretical ideas 5
3.1.11 Collaborative Group  Work 5
3.1.2 Scaffolding 7
3.2   Rational for the choice of theoretical ideas

 

8
4.0 The lesson Plans 9
  Lesson Plan one 10
  Lesson Plan two 13
  Lesson Plan three 16
4.1 Theoretical discussion of the assessment tasks 18
4.2 Anticipated challenges and possible solutions 21
5.0 Conclusion 22
  References 23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

 

  • Overview

Collaborative group work involves the group members’ individual contribution for maximizing the learning outcomes and the common goals for the group (Jonson, Johnson and Smith, 2014). Taintong and Teemuangsai (2013) told that scaffolding is such a learning technique designed to promote a deeper understanding to the needs of the students with the achievement of the common goals. So, the collaborative group work and the scaffolding are very useful techniques that intend to achieve the maximum learning outcomes through active students’ participation. In my present piece of study, I want to use the collaborative group work and scaffolding in my political science classes to ensure the students’ active participation for effective learning and the development of their knowledge.

1.1 Context

Since November 2008, I have been with the teaching profession and now I am an assistant professor of Political Science at a government college, Jashore, Bangladesh. This is an old and traditional college situated in the heart of the city where 170 teachers teach more than 25 thousands students through 21 disciplines. This college is entitled for intermediate, degree, honors and master’s program.

In the early stage of my teaching, I have faced some problems while conducting undergraduate class. As I didn’t have any pedagogical experience, I would have conducted the class session in a very fixed academician-oriented where students were neither attentive listeners nor active participators. So, students could not develop their critical thinking, analytical ability and problem-solving skill. Pedagogical knowledge refers to the particular body of the knowledge of teachers for making a viable teaching and learning atmosphere for all the learners (Sonmark, K. et al., 2017).  I would have conducted the class such a way where my target was to push the students for a good score in the examination. Students’ achievement is measured here through the Grade Point Average (GPA) and undergraduate students under National University of Bangladesh are evaluated through both formative and summative assessment. For formative assessment, 20% marks is allotted for in-course examination and class performance whereas the summative assessment is held at the end of the semester for 80% marks. Here, I follow the teacher-centered method. I also follow the central curriculum system that I cannot change but I can develop student-centered teaching method instead of teacher-centered. For developing this, I would like to apply collaborative group work and scaffolding under the constructivism theory in my work.  Being a teacher of a government college, I would like to execute this study through introducing student-centered instructional practice in my ‘Good governance’ classes. Two specific aims of my study are:

(1)  To ensure students’ active participation in my good governance class through using these techniques which is not possible in the traditional learning method and

(2) To develop the students’ new knowledge as if they can apply this in their real life experience to face various social obstacles.

The output of this study will be able to remove monotonous and one way learning from the students and my fellow colleagues will be interested to apply this teaching practice in their classes that will help them to bring a positive change in the teaching-learning atmosphere.

 

  • Instructional Practice

Instructional practice is very significant for teaching because it helps the students to fulfill their diverse requirements. Barlow and Brown (2020) told that the instructional practice play a key role about the structure of the exam, lectures and students’ interaction. The constructivism theory provides some student-oriented instructional practices (mentioned in the UCLA module) like; collaborative and cooperative group work, scaffolding, reciprocal teaching, authentic learning, inquiry and self-guided learning.

In my instructional practice, I always follow one way learning method (direct instruction) and here I emphasize the memorization of the contents only. In this process, students get very few opportunities to be interactive, create new knowledge and share that to others. According to Weegar and Pacis (2012) “Behaviorism begins by introducing lower level cognitive skill.”  Here, I face some problems like students’ absenteeism, non-participation, poor engagement, lack of interactive, large number of students, centrally designed curriculum, no lesson plan, poor feedback and summative assessment.

Taking these problems in my considering, I would like to change my instructional practice and move on to collaborative group work and scaffolding for ensuring a congenial classroom atmosphere in my discipline. Being a teacher of Political Science, if I can introduce this process, students will be able to –

(1) Understand various concepts of political science like; democracy, good governance, rule of law, forms of government, public opinion etc.

(2) Participate in the learning process actively for the development of the new knowledge and

(3) Apply this new knowledge to be good citizen of the country.

Apart from these, my priority would be moving to change the students’ role from passive to active through engagement. Though it’s a challenging task, I firmly believe through applying this two technique, it will be possible to extend the students’ eagerness, participation, active learning, freedom of learning etc.

 

  • The Theoretical Ideas

The collaborative group work and scaffolding are derived from the constructive learning theory. The constructive learning theory is a modern learning theory where teachers create congenial learning atmosphere for the students and the students construct the new knowledge with a blend of their prior knowledge and experiences. Vong (2017) argued that the constructivism theory helps the students to construct their new knowledge through participation in the learning activities, however teachers play their role to create an atmosphere that instigates the students to inquire, discuss and reflect on new knowledge. So, the constructivism helps students to construct new knowledge based on their prior knowledge and the teachers create the suitable learning atmosphere.

In the collaborative group work, students have the chances to converse with fellows, present and defend ideas, exchange different beliefs, ask other theoretical frameworks and are engaged actively (Laal and Laal, 2011). According to Johnson, Johnson and Smith (2014) collaborative group work holds five basic principle like; positive interdependence, individual accountability, promoted interaction, proper use of social skill and group activities and it has some learning strategies like ; jigsaw, think-pair-share, quiz-quiz, numbered head together, group investigation etc. In my study, I have applied jigsaw strategy in the first and second lesson plans respectively. Jigsaw strategy emphasizes broadly on facilitating students with the opportunities to assist each other in building and understanding the tasks assigned in the classroom (Abed et al., 2019). Sabbah (2016) argued that the jigsaw is an active learning process where each students holds a piece of topic to be learned by all the members and each student is accountable for teaching their topic to the other members in the group. So, the jigsaw helps the students to understand the group tasks and to teach the tasks to other members in the group.

On the other hand, scaffolding is another learning idea of the sociocultural theory given by Lev Vygotsky and his concept, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Raymond (2000) argued that in this concept a more knowledge other (MKO) provides transitory supports to the students to assist them for moving on the next level of knowledge. Fani and Ghaemi (2011) defined that the ZPD is a technique where students are supposed to offer their individual goals and achievements for the development of the all members of the team. According to Veresov (2004) ZPD is the distance between the actual development level and the potential development level which is determined by the individual and advanced level students or the mentors. So, the ZPD is the achievement of the students’ development level determined by themselves as well as by their teachers.

Alibali (2007) mentioned that in the scaffolding learning idea there are some techniques like mind maps, question-answers, clues, advance organizers, hand signal, flow charts etc.Belland, Kim & Hannafin (2013) stated that the scaffolding learning technique guides the students not only to reach their goal but also to lessen their frustration. So, the scaffolding technique helps the students to find a way for solving any problem by the support of the teachers. I have applied this technique in the third lesson plan to increase the students’ participation and the engagement in the class for developing their critical thinking, creating new knowledge, and becoming independent learners.

 

 

  • Critical discussion of the theoretical ideas

This part will carry out comprehensible review of the published literature on my selected learning techniques. The followings are the potential review of the literature on the Collaborative group work and Scaffolding learning ideas.

3.1.1 Collaborative Group Work

Collaborative group work is a learning technique that engages the students in the learning process for developing their skills of performance. To implement this technique in my lesson plan, I will apply ‘Jigsaw’ strategy. Here students are divided into small groups and within the groups they do their respective work with responsibility to enhance their skills under the supervision of the teachers. According to Gallordo et al., (2003) jigsaw is a technique intended to provide collaborative learning atmosphere for emphasizing interaction among workgroup member without technological support. Aydin and Biyikli (2017) argued that the jigsaw is a collaborative learning technique which enhances the collaborative learning by making each student responsible for teaching the learning materials to the group. So, the jigsaw technique will play an important role to implement the collaborative group work in my lesson plan as it provides the collaborative learning atmosphere.

 

According to Acar & Tarhan, (2007) the constructivism learning theory provides an opportunity for collaborative learning structure, and thus plays a dominant role to develop the students’ performance and social skill. Laal and Ghodsi (2012) stated that the collaborative group work is a method of teaching and learning where learners work collaboratively for solving the problem or finishing the task or making a product. So, for enhancing the students’ skill and solving the problem, collaborative group work will play an important role.

Similarly, Gillies (2016) argued that the collaborative group work describes the learning objectives clearly, recognizes the individual performance, and ensures the active participation and engagement in the classes. He furthermore mentioned some benefits of collaborative group work like; better achievement, higher productivity, more supporting and caring, greater social skill, and self-esteem. So, the collaborative group work is more effective technique in the learning process.

Accordingly, Laal, Laal & Kermanshahi (2012) collaborative group work provides a space where students can converse with peers, express and defend ideas, reciprocate different beliefs and values, query other theoretical structure and engage in the class activities attentively. In fact, they emphasized the students’ engagement and the role of teachers regarding the completion of the group task but they did not pay attention to an important issue which is critical thinking skill. Samuel (1991) Gokhale (1995); Johnson, Johnson & Smith (2014); Totten (1991) cited in Laal, Laal & Kermanshahi (2012) have pointed out this critical thinking skill very precisely. Regarding this, Totten (1991) and Gokhale (1995) stated that collaborative group work provides the students an opportunity to engage and enhance their interest among them, exchange their ideas, take responsibility for the self-learning and consequently they become critical thinkers. So, the collaborative group work ensures the students to develop their critical thinking through the self-learning.

Anyway, Laal & Ghodsi (2012) outline the benefits of the collaborative group work into four major categories like; social benefit, educational benefit, cognitive benefit and assessment benefit. The most important category is here the educational benefit because it changes the learning atmosphere radically specially students’ participation and their engagement in the classroom activities. These things maintain the consistency of my study which indicate that collaborative group work holds very potential academic benefits specially on students’ engagement and their active participation and this opinion is supported by many researchers like Webb (2009); Hermann (2013); Dauk, Bahous & Bacha (2016); Zepke & Leach (2010); Laal & Kermanshahi(2012) and Adams (2013).

On contrary, Gillies, Asham and Terwel (2008) opined that though the collaborative group work has various benefits, there is a great challenge to implement this idea in the classroom for the teachers due to insufficient knowledge, infrastructural facilities and lack of commitment to the professionalism. Similarly, Webb (2009) found that most of the students don’t participate in the group work regularly. So, regarding the implementation of the group work, there may have some challenges, but sad to say that most of these challenges are found in the science disciplines but not in the social science disciplines like political science or sociology. Moreover research conducted by Zepke & Leach (2010) and Webb (2009) along with a good number of researchers certified that students could learn through working and assisting with each other, oppositely, getting support from teachers they could enhance their participation and engagement in the classes. So, in spite of having some challenges with the collaborative group work, students can learn by themselves being in the group as well as by the support of their teachers.

So, it has been comprehensible to me that studies of Laal and Ghodsi (2012) and Webb (2009) support my idea because their swork will assist me implementing my lesson plans on the good governance classes and learners’ attendance will be increasing as well.

 

3.1.2 Scaffolding

Scaffolding, is another learning technique of constructivism theory. I will use this technique in my 3rd lesson plan through ZPD, MKO and Hand Signal. In the scaffolding, the teacher helps the student master a task or concept what they are initially unable to grasp independently. Stuyf (2002) mentioned that scaffolding helps the students to understand the new ideas or knowledge based on their prior knowledge. Similarly, Hussain (2012) described the same thing that builds the students’ prior knowledge for developing their new ideas or knowledge. So, for the development of the new knowledge of the students, this technique develops the space for students.

Different view was found by Hurtman (2002) cited in stuyf (2002) that indicated teachers’ aims to apply the scaffolding for making the students an independent, self-regulated and problem-solving learner in classroom activities. He furthermore told that teachers apply this idea to engage the students in the classes, and social interaction, culture and language influence the students’ learning greatly. In the same light, the study of Pol, Mercer and Volman (2019) argued that students’ working in the small group with the support of their teachers is more helpful for their learning process. So, according to the authors, students’ social interaction with their teachers, fellows, guardians, others and the learning atmosphere affect the thinking process greatly.

On the contrary, there are some challenges in implementing the scaffolding idea in the class like; constraint of time, large classroom, lack of proper training of the teachers and giving up their control to the students. Stuyf (2002) argued that there are some drawbacks in the scaffolding idea like; time-consuming, hard to apply in the large classroom and most of the teachers are not trained up properly for achieving the goals. In spite of having these challenges, he affirmed that this idea is able to make the students engaged in their learning process, construct the new knowledge, motivate them and mitigate frustration, confusion, uncertainty, and disappointment from them. So, according to Stuyf’s (2002) argument, the scaffolding can be the conformity of my study as it helps the students to create new knowledge through receiving the constructive feedback and assessment from the teachers.

 

  • Rational for the choice of theoretical ideas

The aims of my study are to ensure the students’ active participation and help them to develop new knowledge from the class contents. We follow the teacher-centered learning method which cannot ensure the students’ active participation, and oppositely they cannot develop the new knowledge. The teacher-centered learning develops a culture whereby students cannot come out from the dependency on the teachers (Kompa, 2012). But these aims can be achieved through the collaborative group work and scaffolding as these are student-oriented approach. In the student-centered learning, students participate in the learning process actively and the teachers help to guide them (Emaliana, 2017). According to Laal, Laal & Kermanshahi(2012), Laal & Ghodhi(2012), Gillies, Asham & Terwel (2008) and Hermann (2013) collaborative group work and scaffolding ideas present a standard level of thinking for the students and these are thoroughly student-oriented teaching-learning approaches that help the students to engage and participate in class activities, achieve productive learning outcomes etc. As my teaching topic is good governance which is related to the government, administration, policy making and our daily life, for understanding this, students need to develop their cognitive skill, and they can do it through collaborative group work and scaffolding easily.

Besides, these learning ideas can bring the positive changes to my other colleagues in my college. Students can come out from the memorization process when they adapt themselves with these techniques. I firmly believe that through introducing the collaborative group work and scaffolding ideas in my lesson plans, students will be able to understand our administrative structure, to have the idea of responsibility and accountability, rule of law and their duties to the state. Besides, I will apply the jigsaw technique in my lesson plans under the collaborative group work that will help me how to address some problems like; students’ absenteeism, inattentive and non-participation. Jigsaw developer E. Aronson (2019) has forty years of experience regarding this technique showed that it could enhance the students’ performance, reduce the absenteeism and improve affection for the schooling ( https://www.jigsaw.org/ ). So, I am determined and hopeful that this study will be able to help me enough achieving my aims accurately.

  • The Lesson Plans

For constructing the foundation of a successful teaching-learning atmosphere, an effective lesson plan is necessary. The content and the subject can be different in the structure of a lesson plan. A well-structured lesson plan holds some features like; ice-breaking session, learning objectives, students’ activities, assessment and home tasks. I have executed the following three lesson plans to teach my first year undergraduate political science students in my college.  Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956) has been followed and the formative assessment has been used to assess the question-answer, poster presentation, oral presentation, continuous feedback and the homework.

 

 

 

Lesson Plan one

(Prepared with the idea of collaborative group work)

Lesson outline
Subject: Political Science Topic: Good Governance Class:    Honors Firs Year

Time:     50 Minutes

 

 Equipment and Materials:

·       Multimedia Projector

·       Laptop

·       Power Point Slides

·       White board, Marker pens, Poster papers, lecture materials, supporting books etc.

Objectives:

After this class, students will be able to

§  Define the good governance.

§  Understand the present situation of good governance in Bangladesh.

§  Identify the major characteristics of good governance.

§  Examine the effects of good governance in Bangladesh.

Lesson Steps
1.Starting

(07 minutes)

·       Welcoming the students with greetings.

·       Showing a short video clip on good governance to check students’ prior knowledge about it.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cgagtQ4QZps

 

 

Brainstorming

 

Students’ engagement.
2. Declaration the objectives. I will declare five learning objectives to the students.
3. Checking the prior knowledge Following questions will be asked to the students based on the previous class-

·       What do you mean by the government?

·       What are the functions of the government?

·       What are main problems of the government?

 

                                                               Development (35Minutes)  
4. Content explanation. Good governance:

Good governance is a manner where power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for the development and its main aim is to establish the rule of law.

I will explain the rest of the content consecutive through the multimedia projector.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.chances of practice

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Individual Task:  Individually I will ask some students to explain the good governance.

 

 

Assessment: Formative Assessment ( Jigsaw technique)

Group Task:  I will divide all the students into 12 groups and each group carries 5 students based on the sex, race and ability. I will give them specific task that should be done within the timeframe providing the poster paper, sign pens, white board etc.

I will use the jigsaw technique (*** It is discussed at the end of this lesson plan) so that students can implement it in their real life and rebuild their knowledge.

Every group will do their respective task on the poster paper and interchange their tasks among other group. I will keep my eyes on each group’s task and interfere if needed. Three or four groups will present their group task and they will be assessed by me as well as by their peers.

 

Assessment: Formative Assessment ( Jigsaw technique)

 

 

 

Asking Question:

1.      Which organization first introduced the good governance first?

Convergent (LOTS)
2.      What do you mean by government? Divergent (LOTS)
3.      Do you think good governance is needed to reduce the corruption and how?

4.      Discuss the main characteristics of good governance.

5.      Evaluate the significance of the good governance in Bangladesh in comparison with other developing countries.

6.      Compare and contrast the effects of the good governance in the current perspective of Bangladesh in comparison with India and South Africa.

 

Divergent (HOTS)
6.Feedback

 

 

Instantly, I will give them my feedback on their tasks and provide them more information and clarification if needed.  
7. Assessment of the performance After the evaluation of their performance based on the answers, observations, presentation etc. I will declare the winner group and the best presenter.
8.Ending (08 minutes)

 

Looking back: Review the assessment of the learning

I will recap today’s learning session focusing on the good governance based on the lesson plan and learning outcomes.

 
Moving forward: The next learning steps

·       Homework:  “Evaluate the good governance in the perspective of Bangladesh and its impact on the citizens’ life.

·       The next class will be held on “the problems of good governance.”

·       Finally, I will conclude the session thanking the students for their cooperation.

 

*** Jigsaw-

For applying the jigsaw, I will divide the groups as A, B,C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K ,L  and the group member will be identified as 1,2,3,4,5 respectively. I will five sub-topics topic and each member of a group will get one sub-topic to study.

The first member of each group: ‘The definition of Good Governance.’

The second member of each group: ‘The current situation of Good Governance in Bangladesh.’

In this way, the rest members of each group will get the sub-topics according to their sequence.

After that, I will instruct them as follows-

  • Read the given sub-topics for four minutes.
  • Form a ‘temporary expert group’ from having the same sub-topic and discuss it for another four minutes having a lucid idea.
  • After getting idea, go back to your respective group and explain the topic to the rest of the members as a teacher.

Lesson Plan Two

(Prepared with the idea of collaborative group work)

Lesson outline
Subject: Political Science Topic: Problems of Good Governance Class:                       Honors Firs Year

Time:                        50 Minutes

 

Equipment and Materials:

·       Multimedia Projector

·       Laptop

·       Power Point Slides

·       White board, Marker pens, Poster papers, lecture materials, supporting books etc.

Objectives:

After this class, students will be able to

·       Understand the different problems of good governance.

·       Identify the main sources of problems of good governance.

·       Explain the key factors of the problems of good governance in Bangladesh.

·       Evaluate the causes of the problems of good governance in Bangladesh.

Lesson Steps.
Starting           (07 Minutes) ·       Welcoming the students with greetings.

·       Showing two images on good governance to check students’ prior knowledge about it.

Brainstorming
1. Students’ engagement.
2. Declaration the objectives. I will inform five learning objectives to the students.
3. Checking the prior knowledge Following questions will be asked to the students based on the previous class-

·       What is good governance?

·       What are the main features of good governance?

·       How does good governance affect our national life?

 

Development (35 Minutes)
4. Content explanation.  

I will explain the topics through the multimedia projector. For example-

The different problems of good governance:  (a) Corruption (b) Nepotism (c) Lack of transparency and accountability (d) Absence of rule of law (e) confrontational politics (f) Lack of consciousness (g) Bureaucratic complexity (h) weakness of local government and so on.

I will explain the rest of the content consecutive through the multimedia projector.

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.chances of practice Individual Task:  Individually I will ask some students to explain different problems of good governance.

 

Assessment: Formative Assessment ( Jigsaw technique)
Group Task:  I will give the following sub-topics to the groups and they will work on the concerned topics and present in the class.

(1)  Different problems of good governance.

(2)  The main sources of problems of good governance.

(3)  Factors of the problems of good governance in Bangladesh.

(4)  Evaluation the causes of the problems of Good governance in Bangladesh.

Every group will do their respective task on the poster paper and interchange their tasks among other group. I will keep my eyes on each group’s task and interfere if needed. Three or four groups will present their group task.

 

Assessment: Formative Assessment ( Jigsaw technique)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asking Question:

v  What are the sources of problems of good governance?

 Convergent ( LOTS)
v  What are main key factors of good governance in Bangladesh? Give examples.

 

Convergent ( LOTS)
v  Explain which factors of problems of good governance are playing dominant role in the context of Bangladesh?

v  How can bureaucratic theory label the problems of good governance?

v  Analyze the factors of corruption in the government offices in Bangladesh.

v  Compare and contrast the causes of the problems of good governance in Bangladesh with Pakistan and Nigeria.

 

 

Divergent (HOTS)
6.Feedback

 

Instantly, I will give them my feedback on their tasks and provide them more information and clarification if needed.

 

 
7. Assessment of the performance After the evaluation of their performance based on the answers, observations, presentation etc. I will declare the winner group and the best presenter for their best presentation.

 

8.Ending (08 minutes)

 

Looking back: Review the assessment of the learning

I will recap today’s learning session focusing on the problems of good governance based on the lesson plan and learning outcomes.

 

Moving forward: The next learning steps

·       Home work:  “Describe the problems of good governance and its impact in the perspective of Bangladesh.

·       The next class will be held on “The ways of solving the problems of good governance.”

·       Finally, I will conclude the session thanking the students for their cooperation.

 

 

Lesson Plan Three

(Prepared with the idea of Scaffolding)

Lesson outline
Subject: Political Science Topic: Ways of solving the Problems of Good Governance Class:                        Honors Firs Year

Time:                            50 Minutes

 

Equipment and Materials:

·       Multimedia Projector

·       Laptop

·       Power Point Slides

·       White board, Marker pens, Poster papers, lecture materials, supporting books etc.

Objectives

After the class, students will be able to-

·       Learn about the organ of the government that deals with the good governance.

·       Explain the government officials and citizen consciousness for ensuring the good governance in Bangladesh.

·       Establish new awareness program for solving the problems of good governance.

Lesson Steps.
1.Starting

(07 minutes)

·       Welcoming the students with greetings.

·       Showing a short video clip on good governance to check students’ prior knowledge about it.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oPs25gYpEBo

 

 

Brainstorming

Students’ engagement.
2. Declaration the objectives. I will inform learning objectives to the students.
3. Checking the prior knowledge Following questions will be asked to the students based on the previous class-

·       What are the sources of problems of good governance?

·       What are main key factors of good governance in Bangladesh?

·       Explain three key factors of the problems of good governance in Bangladesh.

 

Development (35 Minutes)
4. Content explanation.

 

I will explain the content through the multimedia projector. For example-

Organ of the government that deals with the good governance.   Among the three organs of the government, the executive mainly deals with the good governance. Officials of the executive organ implement the policy and the decision of the government. Regarding this, they are to ensure the transparency and accountability in all their actions to the people. If all the officials from top to bottom are honest and dutiful to their duties, good governance can easily be established.

I will explain rest of the two contents consecutively for the understanding of the students

 

 

 

 

 

5.chances of practice

Activities:

I do: I will ask the students some questions regarding my explained contents (example: did you visit in any government office and what did you observe?) for examining the students’ prior knowledge. ZPD level will be applied using the hand signal technique (*** as it is discussed at the end of the lesson plan and in the theoretical discussion.). After that, I will deliver a lecture on it like; ‘Duties of a government official.’

We do: Teacher and students will perform a task related to ‘Peoples’ awareness against the corruption’ where students will give their opinions and suggestions.

After that, students will be provided poster papers, sign pens etc. where they will develop a new hypothetical awareness program or model by themselves without the help of the teachers.

They do: In this part, students will demonstrate their respective group task. Each group will be given specific awareness program-based task to develop hypothetical awareness model by themselves. For example group-1 will work on ’anti-corruption awareness program’, group-2 will work on ’anti-bribe awareness program’, group-3 will work on’ anti-nepotism awareness program’ and rest of the groups will also work on the awareness-based task.

 

When students will do their group task, I will give them needful directions (hints, clues, example etc.). Besides this, comparatively weak students will get help from the advanced level students (More Knowledge Others) so that they can achieve the best learning, become self-guided learners.

Finally, one member of the each group will present their task representing their group in the class.

 

Assessment: Formative Assessment (ZPD, Hand Signal and MKO)

 

 

Asking Questions:

 

·       1. What are the organs of the government?

 

 

Convergent (LOTS)

 

 

 

 

·       2. What do you mean by transparency and accountability?

·       3. What is the difference between field administration and central administration?

 

 

Divergent (LOTS)

 

 

 

·       4. How can the problems of good governance be solved? Give an example that other countries followed to solve it.

·       5. Do you think that the peoples’ awareness program plays vital role to curve the corruption from country?

·       Develop a new ‘awareness model on corruption’ that helps to reduce the problems of good governance from the government offices.

 

Divergent (HOTS)

 

6.Feedback Instantly, I will give them my feedback on their tasks and provide them more information and clarification if needed.

 

 
7.Assessment of the performance After the evaluation of their performance based on the answers, observations, presentation etc. I will declare the winner group and the best presenter.

 

 
 

 

8.Ending (08 minutes)

Looking back: Review the assessment of the learning

I will recap today’s learning session focusing on the solving the problems of good governance based on the lesson plan and learning outcomes.

 

 
Moving forward: The next learning steps

·       Homework: “Evaluate the importance of good governance reducing the corruption from Bangladesh.

·       The next class will be held on “Separation of Power.”

·       Finally, I will conclude the session thanking the students for their cooperation.

 

 

*** Hand signal technique:  This is according to the number of fingers from one to four scales. For example 1 finger- no idea at all, 2 fingers- average idea, 3 fingers- good level of understanding and 4 fingers- mastery level of understanding.

4.1 Theoretical Discussion of the Assessment Tasks

A well-structured lesson plan can play an important role to achieve the learning objective on the specific topic and to assess the students’ task. In all my three lesson plans, I have applied the formative assessment on the students’ activities. Cauley and Mcmillan (2010) highlighted that the formative assessment is very effective on the students’ engagement, motivation and the learning achievement.

From the beginning of my class, I have shown video clips and images to attract the attention of the students and this is an ice-breaking part of the lesson plan. According to Yeganehpour (2017) the ice-breaking develops the relationship between students with each other and the teacher and consequently this technique becomes effective and efficient. I have tried to check the students’ prior knowledge through question-answer technique. Tuna and Kacar (2013) argued that the pre-knowledge effects the brain in a way that it operates and organizes new knowledge and information. The memorization power of the students is assessed with the first question that clearly indicates the convergent and divergent question that support Lower Order Thinking Skill  of Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956) cited in Adam (2015) where memorization and remembering process helps the learners to recollect their prior knowledge. The understanding and critical thinking skill is assessed through the 2nd and 3rd question of each lesson plan.

On my content explanation, I have asked the students some questions individually and given them group task. Here, I have used jigsaw technique for collaborative group work in first and second lesson plan. In the third lesson plan, I have used ZPD, hand signal and MKO technique for scaffolding. Through asking the question, I have tried to assess the students’ thinking-skill.   For this, I have used ‘divergent’ and ‘convergent’ question. Dos et al., (2016) opined that the divergent questions are commonly used to attract the students’ interest and attention as well as to check and control the students’ learning to the class as a whole and a minimum level to the team for encouraging high-level thinking process. In case of convergent questions, they opined that these questions are used to check and control the students’ learning for entire class as lower-level thinking process.

In all the three lesson plans, I have used convergent (LOTS) for the 1st question to understand students’ basic knowledge and cognitive skill regarding good governance. In lesson plan one, for 2nd question, I have used divergent (LOTS) where students tried to explain the good governance in their own words. In this lesson plan, for the rest of the questions, I have used Divergent (HOTS).

In lesson plan two, for the 2nd question, I have used convergent (LOTS) where students explained the key-factors of the good governance with example. In this lesson plan, for the rest of the questions, I have used Divergent (HOTS) where students tried to demonstrate their thinking skills on the good governance.

In lesson plan three, for the 2nd and 3rd question, I have used divergent (LOTS) where students explained transparency and accountability and differentiated between central and field administration. In this lesson plan, for the rest of the question, I have used Divergent (HOTS) where students demonstrated their skills on the good governance.  So, for checking the lower-level thinking and encouraging the high-level thinking process, I have applied the convergent and divergent questions in my lesson plan to construct and re-direct the learning.

I have applied poster presentation in all the three lesson plans for both collaborative group work and scaffolding. Here students and teacher can ask the question, give feedback while presentation moving on. Regarding this, Rose, Dlungwane and Wyk’s (2019) and Webb’s (2009) argued that the poster presentation is an innovative way that inspires the students significantly for making the class engaged, participatory and motivational.

Homework is the final task in my three lesson plans for formative assessment to enhance higher cognitive development, active learning and critical thinking ability of the students. According to Janusheva, Pejchinovska, Televski and Merkovsha (2018) the homework boosts the interest and creativity among the learners through the cognitive development and providing constructive feedback that enhances the learning quality and the achievement. So, here I will gather response and give feedback on it in the next class at the beginning stage.

In the scaffolding idea, I have applied the hand signal technique for rating the understanding level of the students. According to Tekene (2008) in the hand signal technique students signal the responses instead of delivering a verbal response. She further more argued that using this technique, teachers can easily find out which students understand the concept and who need more help. Bavelas et al. cited in Thompson (2009) that the hand signal is an interactive technique used in the learning process to code the teachers’ hand gesture as they take place along with the scaffolding. So, this technique has helped me to have a decision where to retouch for assessing the students.

4.2 Anticipated Challenges and Possible Solutions

 

Implementing a lesson plan with learning theory is very difficult in the aspect of Bangladesh college education. Though there are some positive sides in my lesson plan, there are also some challenges like; large number of students, constraint of time, students’ fixed seating arrangement, unfamiliar technique to the students and lack of proper training. But through the professional commitment, these challenges can be overcome.

Boakye and Ampiah (2017) mentioned some similar challenges in their write up like; constraint of time, class management, insufficient resources and teaching materials and the lack of teachers’ pedagogical knowledge.

Solutions of the challenges: In fact, students have enjoyed the lesson plans through collaborative group and scaffolding idea as they are student-centered. Though the application of these theories are a little bit challenging, it can be mitigated by taking different actions by the teachers. For example, for the application of the collaborative group work in the large classroom, students can be trained beforehand. Burke (2011) told that most students have not worked in the group before and they lack the skills to work with others. On the other hand, for the application of the scaffolding idea, conflicts among the students can be mitigated by selecting the group-members based on the level and working. Gonulal and Loewen (2018) told that Scaffolding should be introduced to the adjustment of the students’ level of understanding.  Finally, teachers should hold an open hearted personality to apply the collaborative and scaffolding ideas in the lessons.

So, it is comprehensible that if the college authority, teachers and the concerned stakeholder are being attentive, the challenges can easily be solved.

 

  • Conclusion

 

In my work, the collaborative group work and scaffolding ideas of constructivism learning theory have worked effectively and played a significant role to make the classroom interactive, interesting, and student-oriented teaching-learning atmosphere. According to Laal and Ghodsi (2012) the collaborative group work can help the students to solve the problems or achieve the learning outcomes when they work together. But Boaler (2002) claimed that teacher could ensure the students’ engagement and participation through the assessment and justification of their tasks.  So, from the first two lesson plan and the theoretical discussion, it has been comprehensible that the collaborative group work has helped the students to be responsible for their tasks and to participate in the class actively.

Similarly, the scaffolding has also been proved to be an effective technique in the learning process. My political science students have understood the topic easily with my guidance through this technique. They have explored their knowledge greatly to solve the problems of good governance in the third lesson plan.  But scaffolding idea maybe a little bit failure to come up with the opinion of Hurtman (2002) as he claimed that though the teachers apply this idea in the classroom to make the students independent, self-regulated and problem-solver, there are some challenges with this idea like; unfamiliar to the learners, large number of students, inconvenient seating management, lack of teachers’ skill etc. So, for applying the scaffolding idea successfully, more and more experiment is needed. Besides, as there is no research on the collaborative group work and scaffolding idea in my institution, I should be alert about the anticipated challenges like class size, uncomfortable seating arrangement, lack of teachers’ competency, and insufficient teaching-learning materials before moving to these instructional practices.

So, the theoretical ideas and the assessment process of my lesson plans are giving the clear message that the undergraduate political science students of my college will be benefited immensely from this study.  Coming out from the conventional classroom practice, they are able to learn how to be responsible to the class contents and active participants as well as learn about the different concepts of political science conveniently. Not only that through these ideas, they are able to learn how to construct the new knowledge, how to apply the knowledge in the new situation as well as how to adjust themselves to the 21st century education.

 

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